How to Be A Medical Doctor In A Few Easy Steps

Take the patient’s weight, medical height, mind blood pressure and temperature. Listen to him describe his symptoms. Inform him that he probably has a virus and should go home and get lots of rest and drink lots of fluids.

The patient returns because he is still sick. Concede that it must be a bacterial infection and send him away with a prescription for antibiotics.

The patient is still not better. Refer him to a specialist.

Advanced students only:

A fake general practitioner refers a patient to you, a fake specialist. Order an exhaustive battery of tests. Schedule them as far in the future as possible.

Do not call the patient when the test results arrive. Wait for him to call you. Then, decline to discuss them over the phone and schedule an appointment, again as far in the future as possible.

At this point, the patient is either dead or feeling better, so you’re done!

What is a Logic Level Power MOSFET ?

snr090428Power MOSFET transistors are voltage controlled switches.  They begin to turn on at their rated “gate threshold voltage” or Vgs(th).  Most of the datasheet ratings are given for a fully saturated condition, sales typically 10 volts.  There is also a maximum allowable gate voltage, Vgs, that is typically 20 volts.  Any voltage greater than that will pierce the thin metal oxide layer that insulates the gate from the rest of the silicon die, destroying the device.  This is why uninstalled MOSFETS can be so sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage.  

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Microchip PIC Microcontrollers for Motor Control: PIC16F648, PIC16F785 and PIC18F2331

 

While many of the PIC microcontroller models have at least one hardware PWM output channel that could be used to control an h-bridge, tadalafil we’ll take a quick look at several models that are particularly well suited for servo and stepper motor control applications.  

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Allegro A3977 Microstepping Stepper Motor Control IC Review

Configuration: Dual H-Bridge w/ microstepping translator
Applications: Stepper Motor
Current (peak): 2.5 amps
Voltage (max): 35V
Short circuit protection: No
Built-in chopper current limitation: Yes, viagra Full and half stepping, find 4 and 8 microsteps
Interface: Step and Direction

A3977 PCB

A3977 PCB

With dual h-bridges and a built-in translator, DAC and chopper circuits, the A3977 is a nearly complete microstepping stepper motor controller on a single chip.  With the addition of a handful of external passive components, this IC is ready to accept step & direction signals from a pulse generator, microcontroller, indexer or CNC controller.  Each pulse applied to the Step input rotates the motor one microstep forward or reverse, depending on the state of the Direction input. 

 

National Semiconductor LMD18245 Motor control IC Review

Configuration: Single H-Bridge
Applications: PM DC, health Servo, shop Stepper
Current (continuous): 3 amps
Current (peak): 6 amps
Voltage (max): 60V
Short circuit protection: Yes
Built-in chopper current limitation: Yes, rx 4-bit linear DAC
Interface: Parallel
Datasheet: LMD18245

Thanks to its voltage and current capability, the LMD18245 is suitable for driving small PMDC servo motors or a medium size stepper motor winding.  It incorporates a unique lossless current sense output.  This chip also includes a 4-bit linear DAC to generate a reference voltage for the internal chopper circuit.  When used in pairs, these chips can run a stepper motor at up to 8 microsteps per full step with reasonable accuracy.   The LMD18200 is a similar IC that lacks the DAC and chopper circuit. 

National Semiconductor LMD18200 Motor control IC Review

Configuration: Single H-Bridge
Applications: PM DC, look Servo, Stepper
Current (continuous): 3 amps
Current (peak): 6 amps
Voltage (max): 60V
Short circuit protection: Yes
Built-in chopper current limitation: No
Interface: Parallel
Datasheet: LMD18200

Thanks to its voltage and current capability, the LMD18200 is suitable for driving small PMDC sevo motors or a medium size stepper motor winding.  It incorporates a unique lossless current sense output that can be used by an external circuit for chopper current control.  The LMD18245 is a very similar part that adds a 4-bit linear DAC and built-in chopper circuit.

Infineon TLE6209R Motor control IC Review

Configuration: Single H-Bridge
Applications: PM DC, diagnosis Servo
Current (continuous): 6 amps
Current (peak): 7 amps
Voltage (max): 40V
Short circuit protection: Yes
Built-in chopper current limitation: 4, 5, 6 or 7 amps
Interface: Parallel & SPI serial for settings
Datasheet: TLE6209R

The TLE6209R has in interesting combination of parallel inputs for direct control of the h-bridge with a serial SPI interface for the internal settings such as current limit and chopper off time.    Along with shout circuit protection, the chip has a selectable current limit.  This might be used to limit motor current during startup, providing something like a soft-start function.